This condition is a deformity of the lesser toes (second, third, fourth or fifth toes). In this condition, the toe is bent at the middle joint, causing it to resemble a hammer. Left untreated, hammertoes can become inflexible and require surgery. People with hammertoe may have corns or calluses on the top of the middle joint of the toe or on the tip of the toe. They may also feel pain in their toes or feet and have difficulty finding comfortable shoes.
Treatment for the condition typically involves wearing shoes with soft, roomy toe boxes and toe exercises to stretch and strengthen the muscles. Commercially available straps, cushions, or non-medicated corn pads may also relieve symptoms.
Plantar Fasciitis is an inflammation of the connective tissue, called plantar fascia that stretches from the base of the toes, across the arch of the foot, to the point at which it inserts into the heel bone. Also known as heel spur syndrome, the condition is often successfully treated with conservative measures, such as the use of anti-inflammatory medications or injections, ice packs, stretching exercises, orthotic devices, and physical therapy. In persistent cases, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment (ESWT), platelet rich plasma (PRP) injections, Topaz micro fasciotomy, and in rare cases, surgical release may be used to treat the heel pain.
Hallyux Limitus/Rigidus is a condition that results in stiffness of the big toe joint. It is normally caused by an abnormal alignment of the long bone behind the big toe joint, called the first metatarsal bone. Left untreated, Hallux Limitus can cause other joint problems, calluses, and/or diabetic foot ulcers. Painful bone spurs also can develop on the top of the big toe joint.
Anti-inflammatory medications, cortisone injections, and/or functional orthotics are some of the common treatments for stiff big toe. Surgery may be required if spurring around the joint becomes severe. There are several types of surgical interventions including a cheilectomy, which involves 'cleaning up' the joint or in severe cases the joint may require fusion (arthrodesis) or joint replacement.
A bunion (Hallux Abductovalgus) is a bone deformity caused by an enlargement of the joint at the base and side of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint). The enlargement and its protuberance cause friction and pressure as they rub against footwear and within the joint. The goal for bunion treatment is two-fold: first, to relieve the pressure and pain caused by irritations, and second to stop any progressive growth of the enlargement. Depending on the size of the enlargement, misalignment of the toe, and pain experienced, conservative treatments may not be adequate to prevent progressive damage from bunions. In these cases, bunion surgery, known as a bunionectomy, may be advised to remove the bunion and realign the toe. There are several types of bunion surgery, which may be employed. These options can be discussed with your surgeon.
limb length discrepancy
In many situations, like scoliosis or a congenital short leg, the structural or functional length of the leg changes the way the foot works and can cause overuse problems and pain. Sometimes even a simple injury can shorten a leg length. It is very important to detect this early with an exact computer generated imaging study. We use this study to measure the patient both in a stand and laying position to detect how the limb functions during activity and at rest. Without compensating for this change of length, the foot problem may not improve.
This syndrome is an inflammation of a ligament and joint at the base of the toe, usually the 2nd toe. It is usually caused by trauma or abnormal structural functioning, which overstretches the ligament that attaches one of the toe bones to a metatarsal bone.
Pain in the forefront of the foot is the most common symptom of capsulitis. Noninvasive treatments are used to resolve capsulitis, including wearing low-heeled shoes, cortisone, foot orthotics, etc. In some cases, depending on the severity of the condition surgery may be indicated. There are several surgical interventions depending on the stage of the deformity.